Emergency Medical Technician / Emergency Paramedics
A person trained and certified to appraise and initiate the administration of emergency care for victims of trauma or acute illness before or during transportation of victims to a health care facility
As the field of Emergency Medical Services becoming an emerging healthcare division, there was a need for a certain health care professional to man the ambulances to provide best possible care within the scope of practice. It was scientifically proven that EMS (Pre-hospital care) will reduce mortality and morbidity. The level of care provided in ambulances may range from simple transport for an acute stroke patient to stroke centre and to pre-hospital thrombolytic therapy in an acute myocardial infraction.
The health care professionals who work in ambulances are called Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT) and Paramedics. An EMT/Paramedic should be trained to achieve the skills to provide emergency care, stabilization, transporting the patient to an appropriate hospital. Many countries have their own EMS or Pre-hospital care council to oversee the EMS Education. Nurses and sometime physicians work in ambulances.
1. Emergency Medical Technician – Basic: An EMT-B usually been taught basic anatomy and performs minimal procedures like bleeding control, oxygen delivery, spinal immobilization, breathing support, suctioning and etc…. The patient be handled to an Advanced EMT or Hospital if nearby. The training ranges from 45 days to 6 months. Prior qualification to take EMT-B education is at least High school Diploma. The standard curriculum is from NHTSA – USA (National High Way Transport & Safety Authority) EMT- B text book
2. Emergency Medical Technician – Intermediate: EMT-I is to provide basic and limited advanced emergency medical care and transportation for critically ill or injured patients. This individual’s possesses the basic knowledge and skills necessary to provide patient care and transportation. EMT-I function as part of a comprehensive EMS response, under medical oversight. EMT-I perform interventions with the basic and advanced equipment typically found on an ambulance.
3. Emergency/ Advanced Paramedic: Advanced Paramedic is the highest level of EMS care providers with much more education, better understanding of anatomy, physical examination, more skilled procedures like tracheal intubation, ECG interpretation, Defibrillation, IV infusions and a range of life saving medication can used by paramedics without physician approval. Paramedic works in ambulances, emergency departments, ICU, critical care transport, aero medical transport.
4. Emergency Medical Dispatcher: An emergency medical dispatcher is a professional tele-communicator, tasked with the gathering of information related to medical emergencies, their location, nature of illness/ incident and dispatching an appropriate emergency vehicle. The EMDs are also provide assistance and instructions by voice, prior to the arrival of emergency medical services (EMS).
5. Ambulance Driver/ Pilot: An ambulance driver is a professional driver with safe driving skills. These individuals are also trained in first-aid & CPR skills to help the EMTs/ Paramedics. An ambulance driver should be alert and physically fit at all times. The main responsibility of an ambulance driver is getting to the scene safely and transporting patients to hospitals. Ambulance drivers should be familiar with a range of patient handling equipment in the ambulance.